Case Studies

History of Indian Mutual Fund Industry

With the emergence of diverse productive avenues for investing, mutual funds have become one of the most popular investment options. This is a simple investment product structured around the concept of risk mitigation by spreading investments in multiple channels. According to Nielsen global survey of investment attitudes,it is one of the favourite investment options that ranked atop among the other assets like precious metals, stocks and bonds.

In this article, we will look at the history of the mutual fund industry which grew fairly successfully and helped large number of investors generate wealth over the years.

Entry of mutual funds in India (1963)

This concept emerged in India in 1963 by the formation of Unit Trust of India (UTI) which is a watermark in annals of this industry in India. These are initiated by government and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), with an aim to attract small investors and were focused mainly on investing for creating wealth in the long run.

Monopoly era by UTI (1964-1987)

Established through an Act of parliament in 1963, the Unit Trust of India (UTI) enjoyed monopoly status for 23 years and functioned under the regulation of RBI for a period of 15 years. Later, it was de-linked from RBI in 1978 and functioned under the regulation of Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) which took over the administrative control in place of RBI. The first unit scheme of UTI was launched in 1964 and later more innovative schemes were launched in 1970’s and 1980’s to attract and suit the needs of Indian retail investors. By the end of 1987, the Assets Under Management (AUM) of UTI increased by ten times to Rs 6700 crore.

Entry of Public Sector Players (1987)

Public sector mutual fund players entered in the market in 1987. SBI mutual fund was the first non-UTI mutual fund in India. It has been successfully managing large investor’s funds since 1988. It launched many schemes to provide investors with opportunities for making profits in a diversified basket of stocks of Indian companies.

Later, such schemes were launched by Canbank mutual fund in (1987), Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) in (1989), Punjab Mutual Fund (Punjab National Bank) in (1989), Bank of India in (1990), General Insurance Corporation (GIC) in (1990). By the close of 1993, the AUM of this industry had increased seven times and had Rs 47,004 crore of assets under management. However, the UTI retained its position as the dominant player with 80% market share.

Entry of Private Sector Players (1993)

To provide a wider choice of funds to Indian investors, private sector players along with foreign companies were permitted to enter into the industry in 1993. In the same year, the first mutual fund regulation was passed, saying all mutual fund companies except UTI need to be registered and governed. In 1993, the erstwhile Kothari Pioneer (now merged with Franklin Templeton) was the first private sector mutual fund company in India. During 1994-95, 11 private sector funds have launched their schemes introducing innovative investment strategies.

SEBI – Mutual Funds Regulation (1996)

This industry witnessed a sea change in the 1990s. In 1993, the industry started functioning under the regulation of Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). This is, probably, the most elaborate regulatory effort in the history of mutual fund industry of India. Consequently, there was a spurt in the number of mutual fund houses with many foreign players setting up funds in India. By the end of 2003, there were 33 mutual fund companies with total AUM of Rs 1,21,805 crore. The largest UTI had Rs 44,541 crore of AUM in the same year.

In 2003, UTI was disaggregated into two entities. One is the Unit Trust of India with AUM of Rs 29,835 crore (as on Jan 2003). This has been functioning under an administrator and under the rules framed by Government of India. This does not come under the purview of the Mutual Fund Regulations.

And the second one is UTI Mutual Fund Ltd, sponsored by State Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, Bank of Baroda and LIC of India. This is registered with SEBI and functions as per mutual fund regulations. Currently Unit Trust of India works under the name UTI mutual fund and some of its earlier schemes were gradually wound up. However, UTI mutual fund is the largest player in the mutual fund industry.

As Indian this industry experienced major growth, simultaneously international mutual funds like Fidelity, Franklin Templeton Mutual Fund, etc. entered Indian market. There are 44 mutual fund players in the market until March 2012. This industry has AUM of Rs 6.92 lakh crore as on June 2012.

Esources Scam The Proof Simply Does Not Exist

Attempts to project the largest trade directory in the UK as an esources scam is being made by certain devious elements. The tirade has been going on for quite some time now, but the effort has fallen on its face every time. It is probably a confirmation of the fact that UK trade buyers and suppliers have an unshakable faith in the trade directory and its popular and innovative trading features.

The UK trading community is not giving much importance to the esources scam clattering because they know exactly where these rumors are coming from. In the past, esources has played an important role in exposing fake suppliers and dropshippers operating on the UK e-commerce scene. They have, in fact, forced quite a few of these mischievous elements to shut down their scam shops and have put them out of business. This has infuriated the scammers, and they are now using the review portals and trade blogs to sully the reputation of esources by painting them as cons.

Despite the esources scam rumors, the trade directory continues to grow at a rapid pace. Thousands of trade buyers, wholesalers, distributors, manufacturers, and agents register with the portal every month. The numbers are burgeoning at a fast clip and have already taken them to the numero uno position among UK trade directory service providers. The portal continues to be the favorite destination of buyers and sellers because they strive to improve the trading experience through innovative and easy-to-use trading tools and features.

Esources is the largest resource of verified wholesale and dropship distributors on the Internet today. It is also one of the cheapest directories to use because subscriptions are low priced and tailored to meet the needs of small and medium retailers. If you are using a premium membership service, you are entitled to unlimited e-commerce websites with free hosting. Buyers can also benefit from free eBay market research credits and the free eBay Business Handbook, which is a best seller that traders rely on to become successful eBay store business owners.

Esources is proactive in exposing scams and other illegal trade activities and has been largely responsible for providing the UK trading community a safe and secure trading platform to transact business. You can be sure that there are no middlemen or con artists at work here because the suppliers listed on the directory are individually verified. Trade buyers can simply choose their desired products through the extensive yet well-organized product directory and choose the supplier they want to deal with quickly.

It is now pretty evident that the attempt to project the portal as an esources scams has failed miserably. Traders are hardly bothered by these rumors because they have firsthand experience of what esources can do for their businesses. Esources is one of the few directory services that works for the benefit of buyers and safeguards them from overpriced products and unscrupulous elements. Experts continue to monitor and review the existing sources to ensure maximum protection to buyer members.

Why Socially Responsible Business Can Prosper

If you are thinking about a new business start up, this may be a good time to also think about a social business start up. A social business is one that does make a profit and pay salaries. It also helps to further some socially responsible goal. Are you interested in this idea?

Of course, this idea is not entirely new. There are, actually, some very ethical business models from the past. We tend to pay attention to the bad guys, and sometimes the good guys do not get a lot of notice. But this new term, social business, tends to refer to enterprises that really focus on helping some worthy cause as a big part of their business model.

Is this the same as a not-for-profit corporation? As we understand it, a social business is not exactly the same thing as a non-profit business. A non-profit, as the name implies, does not make a profit for the owners. It may, however, pay salaries to employees. Social businesses do try to make profit. They use a portion of this profit to fund their social aims though.

One good example is peer to peer lending. Investors do want to make a profit. However, borrowers may also hope to get loans with more friendly terms than they could get from major financial companies.

How do these businesses work? Actually, there are several types of social business models. Some may do business with the aim of giving a share of profits to worthy causes. Some may offer a service, at a lower cost, than traditional companies offer that service at. Some companies may just strive to do business in a very socially responsible way. Still others may concentrate on employing a certain group of people. And finally, some of these companies manufacture goods. For each purchase, the manufacturer may donate another product.

You can see that there are several ways to make a business socially responsible. By now, you have probably figured out that a lot of different kinds of businesses could apopt this business idea. They could still make a profit, but could do it while benefiting people locally, nationwide, or all around the world.

Social business may also be very good business. A lot of consumers would not mind spending their money at a company that promotes some of the same ideas that they have. Some people might even be willing to spend a bit more for their soup.

For example, let us say that a small company makes a line of tasty and healthy organic soup. As part of its social business, this soup maker will donate a can of soup for every 12 cans of soup purchased. Would you be willing to purchase 5 cans of soup, instead of your normal brand, if the soup was also healthy and tasted good? If so, you are not alone.

Social business may be good business. Maybe it is time for you to incorporate some socially responsible business ideas into your next business start up idea!

Why Esources co uk Review Articles Are Generating Positive Buzz

New buyers, looking for suppliers are thrilled when informed about esources through review articles. According to them, review articles have helped them understand the benefits of signing up with esources. These reviews also dispelled all false notions of scam and assisted them in locating a database of credible suppliers.

People from all over the world, from all backgrounds, are hearing news of eBay power sellers and affiliates who make thousands of dollars a month, running a business from their home. They want a piece of this lucrative e-tailing pie. The problem is on two counts:

– Buyers are inexperienced, not just about matters of running an ecommerce business, but also related to finding the right suppliers, marketing, and so on. – Buyers find an impenetrable wall of scam blocking their way to success when they try to source products online.

According to one review, the site esources helps buyers deal with both these challenges. Perhaps this is what accounts for the success of the site among the buyer community, the review goes on to say.

Buyer Support

Startups need support in the form of mentorship. In the US, according to one estimate, almost 90% of small business shut down within six months of starting. In the UK, the figures are even higher. One major roadblock facing startups is their lack of knowledge about etailing, something that esources helps rectify, according to an review.

Most people, who set up online stores or trade on eBay, do not have advanced management degrees. This does not mean that with the right guidance, they cannot build a successful business. One review records the efforts made by toward educating buyers. It runs e-courses that enable buyers to understand the intricacies of e-tailing. These e-courses, which could set you back by hundreds of pounds elsewhere, cost nothing on esources.

Premium buyers are offered advanced level courses. They get a feel of the market through case studies and a free copy of the eBayer’s bible: How to Succeed on eBay.

Once you have all the theoretical knowledge, you want to know exactly what to sell. The review articles say that esources does not abandon the buyers after the ecourses. It makes available a market research tool that will enable buyers to decide which product to sell. This market research tool, according to the review, studies keyword search patterns for various products. The more the searches, the greater its popularity. Now you know precisely what products are more in demand and which products will not sell well unless you put in some extra effort.

Verified Supplier Database

When you are new to business, you become easy prey to fraudsters and scammers. These fraudulent sellers pose online as genuine suppliers because it is easy for them to hide their real identity, online. A small business does not have the resources to verify the identity of every wholesaler they come across on the internet, particularly when many of these wholesalers are based in another country.

The esources directory, according to one review, addresses this requirement by offering a service that features only genuine, verified suppliers. Thanks to this service, the review adds, buyers can now pick from a large selection of established, reputable suppliers. According to the review, the esources service has helped thousands of buyers connect to honest suppliers.

Characteristic and Installation of Concentrator

The high Efficiency concentrator machine is suitable for dehydrating water of the concentration and gangue in the concentrating factory, making the mash of 20%~30% raise up to 40%~70%. It is widely used for melting, chemical, coal, non metal concentration, environment protection etc industry.

High efficiency concentrator machine is not only a settlement and a new type dehydrating equipment of combining the mash percolate.

Characteristics:1. Adding flocculating agent, bigger the diameter of the deposit solid grain, speed up the deposit.2. Set the lean board, reducer the mash deposit distance, increase the deposit and square.3. Have effect on flocculating. Percolating, compressing and dealing quantity of the slurry deposits.4. Fit the perfect automatic facility.

Manufacturing:1. In the manufacturing various parts, components, should according to the technical requirements of the drawing, and adopt drawing the proposed materials for manufacturing, need to be modified by the designers to agree.2. The welding parts after welding must go through detailed in check seam are good, especially 6 type let slot section (figure 4 P. 304) welding landlords should pay attention to more, and in close degree examination as after completion, filling liquid shall not have after dripping phenomenon. Welding let slot to pick up let slot require the use of T424 electrode welding rake should keep drawing is in the correct position.3. The signal pressure installations in the spring, in the system after the pressure test. When spring compression deforms of 10 mm, 6 types by concentrating machine of the axial pressure should be 1025 kg. 12 types by concentrating machine of the axial pressure should be 2250 kg.

Installation:1. The installation transmission and slow components should be special attention to keep parts processing of the face clean. Turn a contact part before installation application kerosene to wash, and in the installation and lubricating oil, during the installation process should carry on the individual parts and components of transmission inspection. Turn not to have noise and turn the phenomenon such as difficult.2. Always the installation process from the first part of the installation, respectively, then install the transmission part of the base parts and driving part, finally installed the rest parts.

Stone production line : conveyor : dryer : crushing station : plant :